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A successful cultivating of blueberry is starting with the selection of the appropriate place and the good preparation of the soil. This phase is really important. The blueberry is a exposed rooted plant, with quite a lot of fringe roots.
To demonstrate good growth the careful and meticulous site selection is necessary for its thin roots looking like coils or hair bundles.
Blueberries like well drained soils which are high on organic substances and low on pH value, means the soil should be rich on acid characteristic, sandy, silty or silty-clayish.
Whereas you can find soils like this in the east of the Blachsea region, the cultivating of blueberries in the west of the Balcksea region is only after some modifications on the soil possible. But this would increase the costs for cultivating. The blueberries which are growing in the east Balcksea region at an altitude of 100-150m, needing, as far as you move to the west, an altitude of 600-800m and higher on places near forests to have a chance to grow.
Blueberries planted on the wrong place are showing, regardless of the technical and cultural practices weak growth, fruits of poor quality, less or non fruits, and get out of hand soon.
Preparation of the soil
The Blacksea region is a region in which natural acidic soil is prevelant. Some of the Vaccinium’s which taken place in the species like blueberries are home at the northeast of Anatolian region, videlicet that the areas, in the east Blacksea region, in the inlands of Artvin,
where spurce, beech, hornbeam, bearberry, alder, rhododendron and pine species are growing in mixed forests or places near these should be prefered. In this places, highbush plants originated from the north videlicet plants which prefers cold weather, should be prefered.
Blueberries could be cultivated in the neighboring districts of Artvin, like Arhavi, Hopa and Kemalpaşa, where tea is being cultivated and above mentioned plants are growing, mixed forests and altitudes raw prairie is present.
For agriculture of blueberries, varity selection is important for the cultivating and the market demand. Plants have to be choosen by consideration of the circumstances of the farmland and the high quality- and outturn referances, according to be appropriate to these.
Because there are outturn and growth differences between the species, you should research and do the necessary inspection of the factors given following to you, before you make your choice. Maturation time- how to use the fruits- taste-marketing instruments-machine harvest potential-fruit weight-use of labor force at harvesting-outturn-harvest time
The blueberry plant has to be dibbled in autuum or on the beginning of spring. Plants should only be bought in production nurseries which have government permits and are reputable and secure, to avoid the purchase of diseased seedlings.
After the purchase of the plants from the production nursery untill the dibbling additional precautions should be made to avoid the dehydration and the suffer of the plants and to keep them alive. The highbush blueberry plant should be provided at 2 or 3 years of age and tubed (in pot, off rooted). These plants are having the advantge of a better root and shoot system, which helps them to come through earlier and to give a better fruit outturn. The older tubed or open rooted blueberry plants don't accommodate so good, compared to the 2 year plants, so there is no need to pay more for the purchase, the difficulties at the transport and the higher efforts at the dibbling of those.
It is salutary to mulch the crescent, dibbled blueberry plants's sequences with materials like, sawdust, rind fragments, pine hands, rotten stem, straw, rind and such. To control the soil temperature and the soil moisture in a positive way, it is helpful to make a mulch line around the plant roots in a thickness of 10-15 cm. To mulch the blueberry plant it is necessary to buy or provide mulching material abudantly, and to use local vegetative wastes. Most of the organic mulches are of higher water retention and provide a balance between the air and the water, depandable on the type of soil.
Whereas the soil moisture in the east Blacksea region especially at higher altitudes show stability, the soil moisture at lower altitudes and the west Blacksea region depends on seasonal differences. During the rest of the blueberries in the winter and early spring monthes water accumulation surround the plant roots is observed. And during the growth period there are periods in which it is not possible to find the humid conditions for a optimal growth. In such cases it is unavoidable to irrigate for providing a maximum growth and outturn.
The amount of irrigation depends on the plant's age, the sun taking situation, the outturn, the temperature, the humidity, the wind, the amount- and distribuiton of the rain and the moisture holding capacity of the soil.
It is well known that for the growth and the development of plants, 17 essential plant nutrients.are important. Whereas the plants consume a lot of macro-nutrient elements like nitrogen, phosphorus and kalium, they need less of micro-nutrient elements.
If one of these elements is only a bit incomplete the vegetative or generative growth stages can be influenced.Whereas the indentification of nutrient deficiences at blueberries is easy, the distinguishing or the identification from each other is very difficult in general. The shape and color changings, the weaking of the growth, the abnomality at the leaves and shoots could show a flaw of an imbalance of nutrients. The knowledge of the specific symptoms o the buleberry leaves could be helpful to detect the nutrient deficiency. The nutrients of the blueberries should be appointed by soil and leaf analyses each year.
The outturn and the quality of the fruits can be saved by pruning the blueberries regularly each year, the strong growth of the plant should be provided, new shoots growth should be benefited and the less productive older shoots should be removed from the seed plot. With the pruning of the blueberries the seed plot takes shape and the fruit weight at the plant and the grain size is being taken under control. Also the pruning is necessary to rejurenesce the old plants. At blueberries which haven’t been pruned or don’t being pruned regularly there are jams on the seed plots seen, the growth of the shoots is weak, thin shoots are growing and fruit sizes decreasing on descended powered scrubberies. The pruning time for blueberries is during their winter rest, end of winter or before spring, prior to the awaking of the buds. In the first 3 years after the dibbling of the blueberry plant, only broken, diseased, undersized developed or slow developing shoots have to be pruned and removed. In the following 2 years after dibbling the blueberry plant, all flower buds on the plant have to be removed to strengthen the growth of the plants and to facilitate their accustoming on their environment.
One of the most important topics at blueberry agriculture is the fight against wild growing weed. There should be no opportunity for wild weed to grow in a blueberry garden. Whereat wild weed control is very important for the outturn, the growth and development and of course the quality. With wild weed are meant, yearling or perannial plants, like reed, thin wattles, and woody plants growing together with the blueberries in one field. In blueberry gardens all wild weed on the top or between the sequences have to be taken under control. The wild weed which is growing between the plant breaks can be controlled with simple soil tillage or with turfing. It is much more difficult to control the wild weed growing on the top of the same sequence like the blueberry itself. The ideal method in this case is to mulch the top of the sequence.
With this method you can pace the soil moisture and the soil temperature and the amount of organic matters in the plant root zone increases
Mulching on the top of the sequences in a thicknes of 10-15 cm with sawdust, wood particles and natural materials like this should help to control wild weed.
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